Arquata del Tronto (AP), Italy
Municipality of Arquata del Tronto - Borgo snc
Stefano Boeri Architetti, MATE soc. Cooperativa, Nhazca srl, Pro.Ge77 srl, D.R.E.Am. Italia
Stefano Boeri Architetti
Director: Corrado Longa
Project Leader: Anna Maiello
Francesca Capicchioni, Elena Gianelloni, Daniele Barillari, Geronimo Fioravanti, Alessandra Balletta
The Municipality of Arquata del Tronto was severely affected by the earthquake that devastated Central Italy in 2016. As part of the Reconstruction, the competition for the Pianificazione Attuativa degli interventi di Ricostruzione in the historic centre and in the urban areas impacted by the seismic events was won by the grouping composed of Mate Engineering, Stefano Boeri Architetti, MATE soc. Cooperativa, Nhazca, PRO.GE.77 and D.R.E.Am. Italy.
The reconstruction project of Arquata del Tronto, involving 7 districts (Arquata, Capodacqua, Pescara del Tronto, Pretare, Piedilama, Tufo, Vezzano), for a total of about 100 sqkm, has been developed following the Guidelines shared with the local entities, starting from a comparison also with the local community aimed at identifying the problems, the criticalities and the different intervention scenarios, in relation to the morphology and functions.
In particular, the project was developed from an initial analysis of the existing situation, which showed that 90% of the buildings were completely unsafe and uninhabitable. Consequently, the first prerequisite for the project was to work toward the safety of the site, with the possibility of introducing innovative ways of rethinking settlements – both those to be recovered and those to be rebuilt or relocated. For this purpose, special attention is devoted to the technical and technological innovation of reconstruction, in order to guarantee renewed usability by the inhabitants and encourage the establishment of new attractive functions. In addition to reducing the seismic risk and enhancing environmental resources, the plan’s objectives include the production of sustainable energy, the use of innovative materials, the strengthening of public services and the relaunch of tourism, all of which play a fundamental role in defining a new reconstruction model.
The district most affected by the earthquake is Pescara del Tronto. The urban studies carried out on the historical village in relation to the seismic micro-zoning characteristics, confirmed that a part of the village, which develops along the provincial road, could be rebuilt in situ thanks to the securing of the slopes, with the construction of supporting piles or terracing suitable to host the buildings to be rebuilt. On the other hand, the lower part of the village, below the provincial road, has very significant hydrogeological and seismic risks, which make it necessary to evaluate alternative solutions for reconstruction: this part of the village – about 9,600 sqm of built area – will have to be relocated.
Specifically, the project proposal identified two sites for the partial relocation of the urban centre of Pescara: the area of the former Quarries located immediately north-west of provincial road 129, where the largest number of aggregates will be rebuilt, and a site located north of the Piedilama district that will host a reduced number of dwellings.
The decision to rebuild Pescara by occupying the area of the former quarries is an important element in terms of environmental and landscape sustainability as it was possible to identify a more stable site from a hydrogeological and seismic point of view, which will be made even safer thanks to the planned stabilisation works (such as, for example, 4 hectares of terracing with 10 km of retaining walls). In addition, this choice allows for the recovery of an area that is currently abandoned and degraded in terms of both landscape and environment, due to its previous use as a quarry. With this intervention, the objective was to reconstruct the nature of the hamlet, based on aggregates of great density and continuity, characterised by an important view of the landscape. Specifically, 24 new aggregates are planned, with 85 housing units of 13 different sizes. The project to the north of Piedilama has a similar character, with 3.700 square metres of public green space and 1.500 square metres of public roads, in areas that have not yet been built on and therefore require additional urbanisation works.
Finally, the implementation plan for Pescara foresees the hydrogeological, landscape and environmental recovery of the historic site of the village through the creation of the Parco della Memoria, an area of 2,2 hectares within which the open spaces and paths are articulated, using the planting of autochthonous species and essences for the correct insertion in the landscape.
The overall idea for the Arquata del Tronto project is therefore not to pursue reconstruction following a process of sameness, but of identity, recreating authentic spaces and relationships for the citizens of a territory that has been wounded but is ready to be reborn. A reconstruction model based on the recovery of the authenticity of the area – rather than on the impossible reconstruction of a landscape and social configuration identical to the one destroyed by the earthquake.
The numbers of the project:
60.000 sqm of existing roads to be restored
10.000 sqm of project roads
>90% uninhabitable buildings
73 units to be rebuilt
47 units to be relocated
85 new housing units
2,2 hectares of Memorial Park
50.000 sqm of public green areas
9.700 sqm of public spaces